Planeten. • Zwergplaneten. • Natürliche Satelliten. (Monde). • Kleinkörper Verlust des neunten Planeten ☹ cowell-shah.com Planeten sind Regionen von Missionen für bestimmte Gruppen von Schwierigkeiten und Fraktionen. Jeder Planet hat seinen eigenen Satz von Ressourcen und. Ein Planet (des Sonnensystems) ist gemäß der Definition der Internationalen Astronomischen Union (IAU) ein Himmelskörper,. (a) der sich auf einer.
IMP-Schülerinnen erstellen Planeten-WikiPlaneten sind Regionen von Missionen für bestimmte Gruppen von Schwierigkeiten und Fraktionen. Jeder Planet hat seinen eigenen Satz von Ressourcen und. Der jüdische Geschäftsmann Max Emden aus Hamburg machte in den er Jahren mit Kaufhäusern wie dem KaDeWe in Berlin oder dem Oberpollinger in. IMP-Schülerinnen erstellen Planeten-Wiki. Da die Lernplattform „Moodle“ am St.-Dominikus-Gymnasium schon seit zehn Jahren eingesetzt wird, konnte sie sehr.
Wiki Planeten Inhaltsverzeichnis VideoUniverse Size Comparison 3D Nach dem derzeitigen Wissensstand scheinen Planemos recht häufig zu sein. The Beginnings of Western Science 2nd ed. The Pythagoreansin the 6th and 5th centuries BC appear to have developed their own independent planetary theory, which consisted of the Earth, Sun, Moon, and planets Bayern Bremen Ergebnis around a "Central Fire" at the center of the Universe. Ptolemy's Almagest. Ein Planet (des Sonnensystems) ist gemäß der Definition der Internationalen Astronomischen Union (IAU) ein Himmelskörper,. (a) der sich auf einer. Auch die 17entdeckten Planeten Uranus und Neptun sowie der entdeckte Zwergplanet Pluto – bis Planeten sind Regionen von Missionen für bestimmte Gruppen von Schwierigkeiten und Fraktionen. Jeder Planet hat seinen eigenen Satz von Ressourcen und. Ein Planet ist ein stellares Objekt, welches in der Regel einen Stern auf einer Umlaufbahn. The Planets Orchestral suite by Gustav Holst First UK edition Opus32 Based onPlanets in astrology Composed –16 Movementsseven ScoringOrchestra Premiere Date29 September LocationQueen's Hall, London ConductorAdrian Boult The Planets, Op. 32, is a seven-movement orchestral suite by the English composer Gustav Holst, written between and Each movement of the suite is named after a planet of the solar system and its corresponding astrological character as defined by Holst. 1 "Here to kill!" - PLANET//SHAPER Information: Appearance: How to Obtain: Fun Fact: This stand was named after the Pose Music,  which was an Album and song made by Camellia. Planet Shaper has deep purple accessories on such as a belt, a hat with cat ears, and wristbands. The stand itself is a solid, smooth, lighter red color. The stand has large, neon yellow claws and a neon. Planet Nine, sometimes incorrectly referred to as Planet X, is a hypothetical planet in the outer region of the Solar System. Its gravitational effects could explain the unusual clustering of orbits for a group of extreme trans-Neptunian objects (eTNOs), bodies beyond Neptune that orbit the Sun at distances averaging more than times that of the Earth. Mercury is the smallest and innermost planet in the Solar cowell-shah.com orbit around the Sun takes Earth days, the shortest of all the planets in the Solar System. It is named after the Greek god Hermes (Ερμής), translated into Latin Mercurius Mercury, god of commerce, messenger of the gods, mediator between gods and mortals. The first civilization known to have a functional theory of the planets were the Babylonians, who lived in Mesopotamia in the first and second millennia BC. The oldest surviving planetary astronomical text is the Babylonian Venus tablet of Ammisaduqa, a 7th-century BC copy of a list of observations of the motions of the planet Venus, that probably dates as early as the second millennium BC. Nur noch die Planeten, die seit der Antike bekannt waren, plus Uranus und Neptun galten weiterhin als Planeten. Seit den er-Jahren wurden tausende Objekte gefunden, die sich jenseits der Neptunbahn bewegen. Planet Schule Würfel Werfen die Originaltöne Www.Spiele Autoren aus den Fernseharchiven ausgewählt und aufgearbeitet. SednaVP
These concentrations become ever denser until they collapse inward under gravity to form protoplanets. When the protostar has grown such that it ignites to form a star , the surviving disk is removed from the inside outward by photoevaporation , the solar wind , Poynting—Robertson drag and other effects.
Protoplanets that have avoided collisions may become natural satellites of planets through a process of gravitational capture, or remain in belts of other objects to become either dwarf planets or small bodies.
The energetic impacts of the smaller planetesimals as well as radioactive decay will heat up the growing planet, causing it to at least partially melt.
The interior of the planet begins to differentiate by mass, developing a denser core. With the discovery and observation of planetary systems around stars other than the Sun, it is becoming possible to elaborate, revise or even replace this account.
The level of metallicity —an astronomical term describing the abundance of chemical elements with an atomic number greater than 2 helium —is now thought to determine the likelihood that a star will have planets.
According to the IAU definition , there are eight planets in the Solar System, which are in increasing distance from the Sun :.
Jupiter is the largest, at Earth masses, whereas Mercury is the smallest, at 0. The number of geophysical planets in the solar system is unknown - previously considered to be potentially in the hundreds, but now only estimated at only the low double digits.
An exoplanet extrasolar planet is a planet outside the Solar System. As of 1 December , there are 4, confirmed exoplanets in 3, systems , with systems having more than one planet.
These pulsar planets are believed to have formed from the unusual remnants of the supernova that produced the pulsar, in a second round of planet formation, or else to be the remaining rocky cores of giant planets that survived the supernova and then decayed into their current orbits.
The first confirmed discovery of an extrasolar planet orbiting an ordinary main-sequence star occurred on 6 October , when Michel Mayor and Didier Queloz of the University of Geneva announced the detection of an exoplanet around 51 Pegasi.
From then until the Kepler mission most known extrasolar planets were gas giants comparable in mass to Jupiter or larger as they were more easily detected.
The catalog of Kepler candidate planets consists mostly of planets the size of Neptune and smaller, down to smaller than Mercury.
There are types of planets that do not exist in the Solar System: super-Earths and mini-Neptunes , which could be rocky like Earth or a mixture of volatiles and gas like Neptune—a radius of 1.
Another possible type of planet is carbon planets , which form in systems with a higher proportion of carbon than in the Solar System.
A study, analyzing gravitational microlensing data, estimates an average of at least 1. On 20 December , the Kepler Space Telescope team reported the discovery of the first Earth-size exoplanets , Keplere  and Keplerf ,  orbiting a Sun-like star , Kepler Around 1 in 5 Sun-like stars have an "Earth-sized" [d] planet in the habitable [e] zone, so the nearest would be expected to be within 12 light-years distance from Earth.
There are exoplanets that are much closer to their parent star than any planet in the Solar System is to the Sun, and there are also exoplanets that are much farther from their star.
Mercury , the closest planet to the Sun at 0. The Kepler system has five of its planets in shorter orbits than Mercury's, all of them much more massive than Mercury.
Neptune is 30 AU from the Sun and takes years to orbit, but there are exoplanets that are hundreds of AU from their star and take more than a thousand years to orbit, e.
A planetary-mass object PMO , planemo ,  or planetary body is a celestial object with a mass that falls within the range of the definition of a planet: massive enough to achieve hydrostatic equilibrium to be rounded under its own gravity , but not enough to sustain core fusion like a star.
These include dwarf planets , which are rounded by their own gravity but not massive enough to clear their own orbit , planetary-mass moons , and free-floating planemos, which may have been ejected from a system rogue planets or formed through cloud-collapse rather than accretion sometimes called sub-brown dwarfs.
A dwarf planet is a planetary-mass object that is neither a true planet nor a natural satellite; it is in direct orbit of a star, and is massive enough for its gravity to compress it into a hydrostatically equilibrious shape usually a spheroid , but has not cleared the neighborhood of other material around its orbit.
Planetary scientist and New Horizons principal investigator Alan Stern , who proposed the term 'dwarf planet', has argued that location should not matter and that only geophysical attributes should be taken into account, and that dwarf planets are thus a subtype of planet.
The IAU accepted the term rather than the more neutral 'planetoid' but decided to classify dwarf planets as a separate category of object.
Several computer simulations of stellar and planetary system formation have suggested that some objects of planetary mass would be ejected into interstellar space.
Stars form via the gravitational collapse of gas clouds, but smaller objects can also form via cloud-collapse.
Planetary-mass objects formed this way are sometimes called sub-brown dwarfs. Binary systems of sub-brown dwarfs are theoretically possible; Oph was initially thought to be a binary system of a brown dwarf of 14 Jupiter masses and a sub-brown dwarf of 7 Jupiter masses, but further observations revised the estimated masses upwards to greater than 13 Jupiter masses, making them brown dwarfs according to the IAU working definitions.
In close binary star systems one of the stars can lose mass to a heavier companion. Accretion-powered pulsars may drive mass loss.
The shrinking star can then become a planetary-mass object. Some large satellites moons are of similar size or larger than the planet Mercury , e. Jupiter's Galilean moons and Titan.
Proponents of the geophysical definition of planets argue that location should not matter and that only geophysical attributes should be taken into account in the definition of a planet.
Alan Stern proposes the term satellite planet for a planet-sized satellite. Rogue planets in stellar clusters have similar velocities to the stars and so can be recaptured.
They are typically captured into wide orbits between and 10 5 AU. It is almost independent of the planetary mass.
Single and multiple planets could be captured into arbitrary unaligned orbits, non-coplanar with each other or with the stellar host spin, or pre-existing planetary system.
Although each planet has unique physical characteristics, a number of broad commonalities do exist among them.
Some of these characteristics, such as rings or natural satellites, have only as yet been observed in planets in the Solar System, whereas others are also commonly observed in extrasolar planets.
According to current definitions, all planets must revolve around stars; thus, any potential " rogue planets " are excluded.
In the Solar System, all the planets orbit the Sun in the same direction as the Sun rotates counter-clockwise as seen from above the Sun's north pole.
At least one extrasolar planet, WASPb , has been found to orbit in the opposite direction to its star's rotation. No planet's orbit is perfectly circular, and hence the distance of each varies over the course of its year.
The closest approach to its star is called its periastron perihelion in the Solar System , whereas its farthest separation from the star is called its apastron aphelion.
As a planet approaches periastron, its speed increases as it trades gravitational potential energy for kinetic energy, just as a falling object on Earth accelerates as it falls; as the planet reaches apastron, its speed decreases, just as an object thrown upwards on Earth slows down as it reaches the apex of its trajectory.
Planets also have varying degrees of axial tilt; they lie at an angle to the plane of their stars' equators.
This causes the amount of light received by each hemisphere to vary over the course of its year; when the northern hemisphere points away from its star, the southern hemisphere points towards it, and vice versa.
Each planet therefore has seasons, changes to the climate over the course of its year. The time at which each hemisphere points farthest or nearest from its star is known as its solstice.
Each planet has two in the course of its orbit; when one hemisphere has its summer solstice, when its day is longest, the other has its winter solstice, when its day is shortest.
The varying amount of light and heat received by each hemisphere creates annual changes in weather patterns for each half of the planet.
Jupiter's axial tilt is very small, so its seasonal variation is minimal; Uranus, on the other hand, has an axial tilt so extreme it is virtually on its side, which means that its hemispheres are either perpetually in sunlight or perpetually in darkness around the time of its solstices.
The planets rotate around invisible axes through their centres. A planet's rotation period is known as a stellar day.
Most of the planets in the Solar System rotate in the same direction as they orbit the Sun, which is counter-clockwise as seen from above the Sun's north pole , the exceptions being Venus  and Uranus,  which rotate clockwise, though Uranus's extreme axial tilt means there are differing conventions on which of its poles is "north", and therefore whether it is rotating clockwise or anti-clockwise.
The rotation of a planet can be induced by several factors during formation. A net angular momentum can be induced by the individual angular momentum contributions of accreted objects.
The accretion of gas by the giant planets can also contribute to the angular momentum. Finally, during the last stages of planet building, a stochastic process of protoplanetary accretion can randomly alter the spin axis of the planet.
However, for "hot" Jupiters, their proximity to their stars means that they are tidally locked i. This means, they always show one face to their stars, with one side in perpetual day, the other in perpetual night.
The defining dynamic characteristic of a planet is that it has cleared its neighborhood. A planet that has cleared its neighborhood has accumulated enough mass to gather up or sweep away all the planetesimals in its orbit.
In effect, it orbits its star in isolation, as opposed to sharing its orbit with a multitude of similar-sized objects. This characteristic was mandated as part of the IAU 's official definition of a planet in August, This criterion excludes such planetary bodies as Pluto , Eris and Ceres from full-fledged planethood, making them instead dwarf planets.
A planet's defining physical characteristic is that it is massive enough for the force of its own gravity to dominate over the electromagnetic forces binding its physical structure, leading to a state of hydrostatic equilibrium.
This effectively means that all planets are spherical or spheroidal. Up to a certain mass, an object can be irregular in shape, but beyond that point, which varies depending on the chemical makeup of the object, gravity begins to pull an object towards its own centre of mass until the object collapses into a sphere.
Mass is also the prime attribute by which planets are distinguished from stars. The upper mass limit for planethood is roughly 13 times Jupiter's mass for objects with solar-type isotopic abundance , beyond which it achieves conditions suitable for nuclear fusion.
Other than the Sun, no objects of such mass exist in the Solar System; but there are exoplanets of this size. The Jupiter-mass limit is not universally agreed upon and the Extrasolar Planets Encyclopaedia includes objects up to 60 Jupiter masses,  and the Exoplanet Data Explorer up to 24 Jupiter masses.
Its mass is roughly half that of the planet Mercury. Every planet began its existence in an entirely fluid state; in early formation, the denser, heavier materials sank to the centre, leaving the lighter materials near the surface.
Each therefore has a differentiated interior consisting of a dense planetary core surrounded by a mantle that either is or was a fluid.
The terrestrial planets are sealed within hard crusts ,  but in the giant planets the mantle simply blends into the upper cloud layers. The terrestrial planets have cores of elements such as iron and nickel , and mantles of silicates.
Jupiter and Saturn are believed to have cores of rock and metal surrounded by mantles of metallic hydrogen.
All of the Solar System planets except Mercury  have substantial atmospheres because their gravity is strong enough to keep gases close to the surface.
The larger giant planets are massive enough to keep large amounts of the light gases hydrogen and helium , whereas the smaller planets lose these gases into space.
Planetary atmospheres are affected by the varying insolation or internal energy, leading to the formation of dynamic weather systems such as hurricanes , on Earth , planet-wide dust storms on Mars , a greater-than-Earth-sized anticyclone on Jupiter called the Great Red Spot , and holes in the atmosphere on Neptune.
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Scientists believe the Spot is a giant vortex similar to the Great Red Spot and also appears to be quasi-stable like the vortices in Earth's thermosphere.
Interactions between charged particles generated from Io and the planet's strong magnetic field likely resulted in redistribution of heat flow, forming the Spot.
Jupiter's magnetic field is fourteen times as strong as that of Earth, ranging from 4. The volcanoes on the moon Io emit large amounts of sulfur dioxide , forming a gas torus along the moon's orbit.
The gas is ionized in the magnetosphere, producing sulfur and oxygen ions. They, together with hydrogen ions originating from the atmosphere of Jupiter, form a plasma sheet in Jupiter's equatorial plane.
The plasma in the sheet co-rotates with the planet, causing deformation of the dipole magnetic field into that of a magnetodisk.
Electrons within the plasma sheet generate a strong radio signature that produces bursts in the range of 0. At about 75 Jupiter radii from the planet, the interaction of the magnetosphere with the solar wind generates a bow shock.
Surrounding Jupiter's magnetosphere is a magnetopause , located at the inner edge of a magnetosheath —a region between it and the bow shock.
The solar wind interacts with these regions, elongating the magnetosphere on Jupiter's lee side and extending it outward until it nearly reaches the orbit of Saturn.
The four largest moons of Jupiter all orbit within the magnetosphere, which protects them from the solar wind.
The magnetosphere of Jupiter is responsible for intense episodes of radio emission from the planet's polar regions.
Volcanic activity on Jupiter's moon Io see below injects gas into Jupiter's magnetosphere, producing a torus of particles about the planet.
As a result, radio waves are generated through a cyclotron maser mechanism , and the energy is transmitted out along a cone-shaped surface.
When Earth intersects this cone, the radio emissions from Jupiter can exceed the solar radio output.
This is approximately two-fifths the orbital period of Saturn, forming a near orbital resonance between the two largest planets in the Solar System.
Because the eccentricity of its orbit is 0. The axial tilt of Jupiter is relatively small: only 3. As a result, it does not experience significant seasonal changes, in contrast to, for example, Earth and Mars.
Jupiter's rotation is the fastest of all the Solar System's planets, completing a rotation on its axis in slightly less than ten hours; this creates an equatorial bulge easily seen through an Earth-based amateur telescope.
The planet is shaped as an oblate spheroid , meaning that the diameter across its equator is longer than the diameter measured between its poles.
Because Jupiter is not a solid body, its upper atmosphere undergoes differential rotation. System II applies at all latitudes north and south of these; its period is 9h 55m System III was first defined by radio astronomers , and corresponds to the rotation of the planet's magnetosphere; its period is Jupiter's official rotation.
Jupiter is usually the fourth brightest object in the sky after the Sun, the Moon and Venus ;  at times Mars is brighter than Jupiter.
Earth overtakes Jupiter every As it does so, Jupiter appears to undergo retrograde motion with respect to the background stars.
That is, for a period Jupiter seems to move backward in the night sky, performing a looping motion. Because the orbit of Jupiter is outside that of Earth, the phase angle of Jupiter as viewed from Earth never exceeds It was only during spacecraft missions to Jupiter that crescent views of the planet were obtained.
The planet Jupiter has been known since ancient times. It is visible to the naked eye in the night sky and can occasionally be seen in the daytime when the Sun is low.
They used Jupiter's roughly year orbit along the ecliptic to define the constellations of their zodiac. The astronomical symbol for the planet, , is a stylized representation of the god's lightning bolt.
The original Greek deity Zeus supplies the root zeno- , used to form some Jupiter-related words, such as zenographic.
Jovian is the adjectival form of Jupiter. The older adjectival form jovial , employed by astrologers in the Middle Ages , has come to mean "happy" or "merry", moods ascribed to Jupiter's astrological influence.
In Vedic astrology , Hindu astrologers named the planet after Brihaspati , the religious teacher of the gods, and often called it " Guru ", which literally means the "Heavy One".
In Central Asian Turkic myths , Jupiter is called Erendiz or Erentüz , from eren of uncertain meaning and yultuz "star".
There are many theories about the meaning of eren. These peoples calculated the period of the orbit of Jupiter as 11 years and days.
They believed that some social and natural events connected to Erentüz's movements on the sky. The observation of Jupiter dates back to at least the Babylonian astronomers of the 7th or 8th century BC.
By the 4th century BC, these observations had developed into the Chinese zodiac ,  with each year associated with a Tai Sui star and god controlling the region of the heavens opposite Jupiter's position in the night sky; these beliefs survive in some Taoist religious practices and in the East Asian zodiac's twelve animals, now often popularly assumed to be related to the arrival of the animals before Buddha.
If accurate, this would predate Galileo's discovery by nearly two millennia. In , Italian polymath Galileo Galilei discovered the four largest moons of Jupiter now known as the Galilean moons using a telescope; thought to be the first telescopic observation of moons other than Earth's.
One day after Galileo, Simon Marius independently discovered moons around Jupiter, though he did not publish his discovery in a book until These findings were also the first discovery of celestial motion not apparently centered on Earth.
The discovery was a major point in favor of Copernicus' heliocentric theory of the motions of the planets; Galileo's outspoken support of the Copernican theory placed him under the threat of the Inquisition.
During the s, Giovanni Cassini used a new telescope to discover spots and colorful bands on Jupiter and observed that the planet appeared oblate; that is, flattened at the poles.
He was also able to estimate the rotation period of the planet. The Great Red Spot, a prominent oval-shaped feature in the southern hemisphere of Jupiter, may have been observed as early as by Robert Hooke and in by Cassini, although this is disputed.
The pharmacist Heinrich Schwabe produced the earliest known drawing to show details of the Great Red Spot in The Red Spot was reportedly lost from sight on several occasions between and before becoming quite conspicuous in It was recorded as fading again in and at the start of the 20th century.
Both Giovanni Borelli and Cassini made careful tables of the motions of Jupiter's moons, allowing predictions of the times when the moons would pass before or behind the planet.
In , E. The discovery of this relatively small object, a testament to his keen eyesight, quickly made him famous. This moon was later named Amalthea.
In , Rupert Wildt identified absorption bands of ammonia and methane in the spectra of Jupiter. Three long-lived anticyclonic features termed white ovals were observed in For several decades they remained as separate features in the atmosphere, sometimes approaching each other but never merging.
Finally, two of the ovals merged in , then absorbed the third in , becoming Oval BA. In , Bernard Burke and Kenneth Franklin detected bursts of radio signals coming from Jupiter at Radio bursts from Jupiter were found to come in two forms: long bursts or L-bursts lasting up to several seconds, and short bursts or S-bursts that had a duration of less than a hundredth of a second.
Since , a number of automated spacecraft have visited Jupiter, most notably the Pioneer 10 space probe, the first spacecraft to get close enough to Jupiter to send back revelations about the properties and phenomena of the Solar System's largest planet.
Entering a Hohmann transfer orbit from Earth to Jupiter from low Earth orbit requires a delta-v of 6.
Beginning in , several spacecraft have performed planetary flyby maneuvers that brought them within observation range of Jupiter. The Pioneer missions obtained the first close-up images of Jupiter's atmosphere and several of its moons.
They discovered that the radiation fields near the planet were much stronger than expected, but both spacecraft managed to survive in that environment.
The trajectories of these spacecraft were used to refine the mass estimates of the Jovian system. Radio occultations by the planet resulted in better measurements of Jupiter's diameter and the amount of polar flattening.
Six years later, the Voyager missions vastly improved the understanding of the Galilean moons and discovered Jupiter's rings. They also confirmed that the Great Red Spot was anticyclonic.
Comparison of images showed that the Red Spot had changed hue since the Pioneer missions, turning from orange to dark brown. A torus of ionized atoms was discovered along Io's orbital path, and volcanoes were found on the moon's surface, some in the process of erupting.
As the spacecraft passed behind the planet, it observed flashes of lightning in the night side atmosphere. The next mission to encounter Jupiter was the Ulysses solar probe.
It performed a flyby maneuver to attain a polar orbit around the Sun. During this pass, the spacecraft conducted studies on Jupiter's magnetosphere.
Ulysses has no cameras so no images were taken. A second flyby six years later was at a much greater distance.
In , the Cassini probe flew by Jupiter on its way to Saturn , and provided some of the highest-resolution images ever made of the planet.
The New Horizons probe flew by Jupiter for a gravity assist en route to Pluto. Its closest approach was on February 28, The first spacecraft to orbit Jupiter was the Galileo probe, which entered orbit on December 7, The spacecraft also witnessed the impact of Comet Shoemaker—Levy 9 as it approached Jupiter in , giving a unique vantage point for the event.
Its originally designed capacity was limited by the failed deployment of its high-gain radio antenna, although extensive information was still gained about the Jovian system from Galileo.
A kilogram titanium atmospheric probe was released from the spacecraft in July , entering Jupiter's atmosphere on December 7.
NASA's Juno mission arrived at Jupiter on July 4, and was expected to complete thirty-seven orbits over the next twenty months. There has been great interest in studying the icy moons in detail because of the possibility of subsurface liquid oceans on Jupiter's moons Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto.
Funding difficulties have delayed progress. Jupiter has 79 known natural satellites. The four largest moons, visible from Earth with binoculars on a clear night, known as the " Galilean moons ", are Io, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto.
The orbits of three of them Io, Europa, and Ganymede form a pattern known as a Laplace resonance ; for every four orbits that Io makes around Jupiter, Europa makes exactly two orbits and Ganymede makes exactly one.
This resonance causes the gravitational effects of the three large moons to distort their orbits into elliptical shapes, because each moon receives an extra tug from its neighbors at the same point in every orbit it makes.
The tidal force from Jupiter, on the other hand, works to circularize their orbits. The eccentricity of their orbits causes regular flexing of the three moons' shapes, with Jupiter's gravity stretching them out as they approach it and allowing them to spring back to more spherical shapes as they swing away.
This tidal flexing heats the moons' interiors by friction. This is seen most dramatically in the extraordinary volcanic activity of innermost Io which is subject to the strongest tidal forces , and to a lesser degree in the geological youth of Europa's surface indicating recent resurfacing of the moon's exterior.
Before the discoveries of the Voyager missions, Jupiter's moons were arranged neatly into four groups of four, based on commonality of their orbital elements.
Since then, the large number of new small outer moons has complicated this picture. There are now thought to be six main groups, although some are more distinct than others.
A basic sub-division is a grouping of the eight inner regular moons, which have nearly circular orbits near the plane of Jupiter's equator and are thought to have formed with Jupiter.
The remainder of the moons consist of an unknown number of small irregular moons with elliptical and inclined orbits, which are thought to be captured asteroids or fragments of captured asteroids.
Irregular moons that belong to a group share similar orbital elements and thus may have a common origin, perhaps as a larger moon or captured body that broke up.
Jupiter has a faint planetary ring system composed of three main segments: an inner torus of particles known as the halo, a relatively bright main ring, and an outer gossamer ring.
Material that would normally fall back to the moon is pulled into Jupiter because of its strong gravitational influence. L'impianto alla base delle sette suite, analogamente a molte altre opere coeve di altri autori, seguiva il solco tematico del trattato Harmonices Mundi , edito da Giovanni Keplero nel e certamente conosciuto da Buxtehude,  nel quale venivano illustrate le analogie fra l' armonia e gli intervalli musicali, il rapporto fra le forme geometriche, i sentimenti umani e il moto dei corpi celesti,  sviluppando l'antico concetto pitagorico della musica delle sfere.
Secondo le convinzioni dell'epoca, ogni corpo celeste aveva delle caratteristiche ben definite. Quella dedicata alla Luna doveva essere in forma ciclica e caratterizzata da variazioni.